How did every species on earth evolve from bacteria?
So, according to evolution, every species on earth descended from bacteria and they all became what they are today due to completely random genetic mutations. This makes absolutely no sense if you think about it. For one thing, how does a fish evolve from bacteria? Genetic mutations in bacteria will only result in different kinds of bacteria. They will never result in a fish. And how could something as complex and intricate as the human body possibly be the result of random genetic mutations?
- QuestionerLv 72 weeks agoFavorite Answer
It's called faith. It requires acceptance of a certain presuppositional dogma and it requires placing one’s faith in a story about the unrepeatable past. To accept that worldview, you must have faith in a professor or textbook—or yet another secondhand source and that secondhand source’s interpretation. After all, not a single person was alive to see how life began (chemical evolution) or the supposed evolution of all life on earth. Any argument or idea that makes claims about the unrepeatable past requires belief. We may have reasons (right or wrong) to believe what we believe, but we cannot go back in time to see if that belief is right.
You mentioned bacteria and, oh, how they love to point to bacteria, but as Dr. Carl Wieland (who has degrees in medicine and surgery) has said, “Bacteria actually provide evidence against evolution. Bacterial populations multiply at incredibly high rates. In only a matter of a few years, bacteria can go through a massive number of generations, equivalent to millions of years in human terms. Therefore, since we see mutation and natural selection in bacterial populations happening all the time, we should see tremendous amounts of real evolution happening. However, the bacteria we have with us today are essentially the same as those described by Robert Koch a century ago. In fact, there are bacteria found fossilized in rock layers, claimed by evolutionists to be millions of years old, which as far as one can tell are the same as bacteria living today” (Superbugs Not Super After All).
They are great at adapting to their environment (like becoming resistant to antibiotics or altering their diet), but they are still bacteria and don’t change in their fundamental nature. And no matter what we do, they stay bacteria. As Dr. Berlinski has pointed out, we should have far more flexibility and plasticity under laboratory conditions than we actually do if Darwinian evolution were true. A good example is the work of Michigan State’s Richard Lenski on laboratory evolution of E. coli, which has shown trillions of bacteria evolving under selection for tens of thousands of generations yielding just broken genes and minor changes (in a word—more E. coli).
- RichardLv 43 weeks ago
If you read science books they answer your questions, or you could just say "goddidit"
- ob1knobLv 73 weeks ago
The only issue that prevents you to figure out how complex animals evolved from single-cell organisms is the time order of magnitude.
We're talking about billions of years. It's very very big you know. Like thousands of millions!
So a few precisions about your post:
- no complex organisms evolved from bacteria. All non-microscopic organisms are eukaryotes, the other domain.
- mutations are random, selection is not: trillions of bad mutations have been eliminated by selection, only the best ones remain.
- multicellularity appeared independently dozens of times from either colonies of unicellular cells or from multi-nuclei cells, both among eukaryotes and bacteria.
However, only 6 Eukaryotic groups are still extant (animals, plants, fungi, and 3 types of algae)
- The human body is not that more complex and intricate than fish.
- Ted KLv 73 weeks ago
Just about the only thing that's random about mutations is that they're random with respect to how "beneficial" they are. That's just about it. We already know that there are hotspots in the genome where mutations are far more likely, so fully "random" mutations are more likely to be confined to specific sections of the genome. But there's NOTHING random about the selection process--mutations that happen to be either neutral or beneficial tend to persist, while those that are deleterious are selected against. That's NOT random.
The other thing that most people don't seem to grasp is how few mutations are needed for speciation (so-called macroevolution). If there is a difference in the expression of say, 2000 separate genes between one species and another, when you look at each one of those genes, none of them show functionally significant mutations in and of themselves--rather, what has changed is how they are expressed--where in the developing embryo, and when during development. It only takes a single mutation in either a transcription factor or a segment of regulatory sequence common to many separate structural genes to completely change the body plan of an organism--in that way, speciation doesn't require separate random "lucky" mutations in 2000 separate genes, it only requires a single mutation that can alter the spatiotemporal expression of an entire regulatory network. A large proportion of the roughly 25,000 protein-coding sequences in our genome code for REGULATORY proteins--transcription factors, repressors, enhancers, transcriptional co-activator proteins, etc., and so-called cis-regulatory sequences--non-coding segments of genes where all those regulatory proteins can bind--and there may be hundreds or thousands of structural genes whose expression is under control by the same regulatory factors. Current understanding is that we don't have just a bunch of separate genes that are all independent of each other, but rather entire networks of genes expressed as a whole--IOW, modules of genes that are expressed together. Thus, a single mutation in a transcription factor or a cis-regulatory sequence can influence the expression of thousands of other genes.
Finally, you evidently have this misconception that in order to go from "bacteria to fish" means one day you have a bacterium, and all of a sudden, the next day, bingo! Now you have a fish! That's like looking at an empty lot one day, then falling asleep for 18 months, waking up and "suddenly," there's a 20 story building sitting where there used to be an empty lot. Did that building suddenly, magically appear overnight, complete and finished? No. You just slept through 18 months'-worth of construction. Well, guess what--you just "slept " through roughly 3 billion years of evolution.
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- SmegheadLv 73 weeks ago
What you have here is nothing more than an assertion based on absolutely nothing but personal incredulity. "I don't know how it could happen, therefore it can't. I win." This is also known as an Incredibly Stupid argument.
You should hopefully understand that there's a whole damn branch of science devoted to nothing BUT explaining EXACTLY how this happens, in great detail, and with mountains of evidence behind it. If you wish to contribute to humanity's pool of knowledge and convince people that you're right, you are more than welcome to dive into that body of evidence and theory and start making, you know, ACTUAL arguments that are based on actual evidence and reality.
Instead, you choose to remain sitting on the outside, vomiting up utter drivel and pretending that it's worthy of attention and respect. Spoiler: it's not. You have contributed nothing to the world, and never will unless you completely change your philosophy. You fail.
- Bulldog reduxLv 73 weeks ago
Ever hear of natural selection? Most random genetic mutations are either neutral or deleterious, so OF COURSE mutation alone can't change bacteria into fish. Try cracking a book sometime. Learning anything new is terribly difficult--but not impossible.
- CowboyLv 63 weeks ago
You have no idea what evolution is and what it is not...
- oikoσLv 73 weeks ago
How? Slowly. Very slowly.
Here's a quick demonstration. Take a standard poker/bridge deck of cards. Pull a card at random If it's a picture card, put it aside. If it's not a picture card, put it back in the deck. Repeat over and over. After awhile, you will have a deck with no picture cards in it. That's how it works. Remember, bacteria have a generation time measured in minutes. Even large animals have a generation time measured in years. How many generations of bacteria will you get in a day? A year? A hundred million years? There has been life on Earth for a lot longer than that.
- TasmLv 63 weeks ago
Its didn't. There are mutations to species, but the various species were planted here. Retillian, Fungi, Inspectiod, Mammal, Plant, Viruses to cause mutations, bacteria. All planted here a long time ago
- BrianLv 63 weeks ago
Try actually reading up on the subject, and you might find out how.
Evolution, and science, are works in progress, constantly being revised and improved in the face of new evidence and interpretations.
If you have an alternate theory (that's testable and can make predictions that can be tested), I'm sure we'd all like to hear it.